|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - continuous, Tiltmeter|
|Duration of observation:||2003-2009 (Envisat InSAR), 2007-2009 (ALOS InSAR), 2010 - present (GPS, Tilt)|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Magmatic|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
Following the start of a long term eruption in 1999, persistent scatterer InSAR between 2003 and 2009 showed large scale uplift centred on Tungurahua, with a peak rate of 8 mm/year (Chapenois et al., 2014). The deformation source was modelled as magma emplacement in a storage zone at 11.5 km depth at a rate of 7 million m3/year.
ALOS observations spanning an explosive phase in Feb. 2008 show uplift of the western flank of Tungurahua, with a maximum deformation of 17 cm (Biggs et al., 2010). The deformation is best modelled by a sill-like or ellispoidal magma body within the edifice inflating by 1.2 million m3.
Continuous GPS and Tilt monitoring is performed by IG-EPN and has been operational since 2010. Deformation results are available on the IG website: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/tungurahua/deformacion-tungurahua
|Reference:||Champenois, J., V. Pinel, S. Baize, L. Audin, H. Jomard, A. Hooper, A. Alvarado, and H. Yepes (2014), Large-scale inflation of Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) revealed by Persistent Scatterers SAR interferometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5821–5828, doi:10.1002/2014GL060956.|
|Reference:||Biggs, J., P. Mothes, M. Ruiz, F. Amelung, T. H. Dixon, S. Baker, and S.-H. Hong (2010), Stratovolcano growth by co-eruptive intrusion: The 2008 eruption of Tungurahua Ecuador, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21302, doi:10.1029/2010GL044942.|
View of Tungurahua from the northwest. Photo: Minard Hall, 1976 (IG-EPN, Quito).
Figure 3 from Biggs et al. (2010) ALOS interferograms spanning December 2007 – March 2008. (a) Stack of two independent interferograms from an ascending line of sight. (b) Single interferogram from a descending line of sight. Both interferograms are re‐wrapped to 2.8 cm fringes. (c) Deformation decomposed into east and vertical components respectively. The peak is 17.5 cm of uplift with little horizontal motion. Model displacement, from the elastic half‐space model‐colours represent vertical motion and arrows represent horizontal motion.