|Region:||Iceland and Arctic Ocean|
|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - campaign|
|Duration of observation:||Insar 1992 to 2002 (2007)/ /GPS August 1997/ Satellite images and aerial photographs from the summers of 2009-2010 (2013) /|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Magmatic, Faulting/tectonics|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
25 Campaing GPS stations to measure the crustal deformation at this side of the plate boundary, monitoring pressure changes near the volcanoes in the area and the displacements of previously measured points in the area. (Hreinsdottir et al., 1998).
Insar study of the areas near the Bárdabunga Volcano, including Tungnafellsjokull Volcano. The study uses ERS satellite images and finds a strong signal NW near the Tungnasfellsjokull Volcano and models for a fault or dike near the area. (Pagli et al., 2007).
Faulting study with InSAR, from a small swarm at a fissure at Tungafellsjökull volcano. A map of the fissure was obtained from aerial photographs and satellite images. (Björnsdóttir & Einarsson., 2013)
Relation between intrusion and activity at Bardarbunga Volcano triggered seismicity at the Tungafellsjökull volcano. The study used InSAR, GPS, and LiDAR. For InSAR, images with X and C bands were used, and for GPS a total of 33 GPS stations were used including continue and campaign sites. (Parks, et al., 2017).
|Reference:||Pagli, C., Sigmundsson, F., Pedersen, R., Einarsson, P., Árnadóttir, T., & Feigl, K. L. (2007). Crustal deformation associated with the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Iceland: InSAR studies in affected areas adjacent to the Vatnajökull ice cap. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 259(1), 24-33.|
|Reference:||Hreinsdóttir, S., Einarsson, P., Jonsson, S., & Sigmundsson, F. (1998). GPS geodetic measurements around Bár* arbunga volcano, central Iceland, in 1997. Rep. RH-13, 98.|
|Reference:||Parks, M. M., Heimisson, E. R., Sigmundsson, F., Hooper, A., Vogfjörd, K. S., Árnadóttir, T., ... & Gudmundsson, M. T. (2017). Evolution of deformation and stress changes during the caldera collapse and dyking at Bárdarbunga, 2014–2015: Implication for triggering of seismicity at nearby Tungnafellsjökull volcano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 462, 212-223.|
|Reference:||Björnsdóttir, T., & Einarsson, P. (2013). Evidence of recent fault movements in the Tungnafellsjökull fissure swarm in the Central Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Jökull, 63, 17-32.|