|Region:||Iceland and Arctic Ocean|
|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Levelling, Strainmeter, Tiltmeter, EDM|
|Duration of observation:||Continuous|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Faulting/tectonics|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
Between February 2007 and April 2008, swarms of small, deep-seated earthquakes were detected within the Kverkfjöll volcanic system (Upptyppingar) in north-eastern Iceland (Hooper et al., 2011) associated with a deep dyke intrusion.
Volcano deformation was measured using InSAR and GPS (both continuous and campaign). Hooper et al. (2011) states that “the continuous GPS station shows a change in velocity towards the end of April 2007, then steady deformation until March 2008 when the velocity reverts again to the background rate”.
The authors also investigate the impact of the ice caps on measured deformationdeformation: “From the horizontal GPS data, we simultaneously estimated the background motion due to plate spreading and the thinning of the ice caps, seasonal motion due to snow loading, and the additional velocity during the intrusion”.
The authors estimate the dyke dimension as: “Strike and dip of the dyke are 81°–82° and 42°–43° respectively and the volume is 42–47 million m3 “.
|Reference:||Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program |
|Reference:||Hooper, A, B. Ófeigsson, F. Sigmundsson, B. Lund, H. Geirsson, P. Einarsson and E. Sturkell (2011), Increased capture of magma in the crust promoted by ice-cap retreat in Iceland, Nature Geosci, 4, 783-786, doi:10.1038/NGEO1269.|
View of Kverkfjoll volcano. Source: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program
Sourced from FutureVolc (http://futurevolc.hi.is/volcanoes-and-monitoring): “Iceland: volcanoes and present long-term monitoring stations. The volcanic areas consist of volcanic systems, made of central volcanoes, calderas and fissure swarms. Western Eastern, and Northern volcanic zones marked (WVZ, EVZ, NVZ) are located on the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian plates. Iceland’s most active volcanoes are Grímsvötn (G) and Bárðarbunga (B) under the Vatnajökull ice cap, Katla (K) under Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, and Hekla (H). Eyjafjallajökull vocano is labelled E”.