|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Tiltmeter|
|Duration of observation:|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Magmatic|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
Deformation is associated with a period of unrest and eruption during 2011 to 2012. On 12 October 2011, a submarine NW-SE fissural eruption commenced.
InSAR results reveal two spatially distinct shallow (crustal) magma reservoirs, a deeper central source (9.5 ± 4.0 km), and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (4.5 ± 2.0 km; González et al., 2013). The intense deformation pattern is indicative of an expansion source located offshore at Mar de Las Calmas.
|Reference:||López, C., Blanco, M. J., Abella, R., Brenes, B., Cabrera Rodríguez, V. M., Casas, B., & Villasante‐Marcos, V. (2012). Monitoring the volcanic unrest of El Hierro (Canary Islands) before the onset of the 2011–2012 submarine eruption. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(13).|
|Reference:||González, P. J., Samsonov, S. V., Pepe, S., Tiampo, K. F., Tizzani, P., Casu, F., ... & Sansosti, E. (2013). Magma storage and migration associated with the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption: Implications for crustal magmatic systems at oceanic island volcanoes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118(8), 4361-4377.|
|Reference:||Arnoso, J., F. G. Montesinos, M. Benavent, and E. J. Vélez (2012), The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations, Geophys. Res. Abstr., 14, EGU2012–5373.|
|Reference:||Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program|
View of Hierro volcano. Source: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program