Taal

Volcano number:273070
Region:
Country:Philippines
Geodetic measurements?Yes
Deformation observation?Yes
Measurement method(s):InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Levelling, Tiltmeter, EDM
Duration of observation:GPS - 1996 campaign; GPS - continuous since 1998; InSAR time series from 2007-2011; Contact PHIVOLCS for information on Tiltmeter, EDM, and levelling measurements
Inferred cause of deformation:Hydrothermal, Magmatic
Characteristics of deformation:

Bartel et al. (2003) suggested that the periods of inflation observed at Taal result from episodic intrusions of magma into a shallow reservoir centered beneath Volcano Island. Subsequent deflation may result from exsolution of magmatic fluids and/or gases into an overlying, unconfined hydrothermal system.

Galagna et al. (2014) suggested that surface deformation patterns could result from delayed viscoelastic response, rather than from new magma influx.

All of the inflation events have been attributed to a mogi source under Taal Volcano Island.  Inflation event of 2000 had a maximum rate of 22 cm/yr, a source depth of 5.2 km located at 14.021,120.999 (Bartel et al., 2003).   Inflation event of 2005 had a maximum rate of 18 cm/yr, a source depth of 5.1 km located at 14.013,121.003 (Galgana et al., 2014).  Inflation event of 2010 had a maximum rate of 14.1 cm/yr, a source depth of 3.07 km located at 14.0115,121.0024 (Morales et al., 2015).

Reference:Bartel, B. A., M. W. Hamburger, C. M. Meertens, A. R. Lowry, and E. Corpuz (2003), Dynamics of active magmatic and hydrothermal systems at Taal Volcano, Philippines, from continuous GPS measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 108(B10), n/a-n/a, doi:10.1029/2002JB002194.
Reference:Galgana, G. A., A. V. Newman, M. W. Hamburger, and R. U. Solidum (2014), Geodetic observations and modeling of time-varying deformation at Taal Volcano, Philippines, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 271, 11-23, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.11.005.
Reference:Morales Rivera, A. M., Amelung, F., & Eco, R. (2015, May). Volcano Deformation and Modeling on Active Volcanoes in the Philippines from ALOS InSAR Time Series. In ESA Special Publication (Vol. 731, p. 74).
Location:120.993, 14.002