|Region:||Iceland and Arctic Ocean|
|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Levelling, Strainmeter, Tiltmeter, EDM|
|Duration of observation:||Continuous|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Magmatic|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
Sturkell et al. (2013) studied Hekla’s last eruption in 2000 using campaign GPS; an InSAR interferogram; dry tilt data, and borehole strain data. They found the presence of a dike that “causes surface fissuring extends no more than ~ 0.5 km in depth, and the reservoir depth is ~ 10 km. These are connected by a conduit of small lateral extent. Data for previous eruptions are consistent with this model”.
There are numerous studies based on deformation datasets published on Hekla and yield estimated reservoir depths from 5 to 10 km (Sturkell et al. 2013 and references therein). In general “Hekla shows a few long-term precursors to eruptions: optical tilt, GPS and InSAR give indications of upcoming eruptions” (Sturkell et al. 2013).
|Reference:||Sturkell, E., K Ágústsson, A. T. Linde, S. I. Sacks, P. Einarsson, F. Sigmundsson, H. Geirsson, R. Pedersen, Peter C. LaFemina, H. Ólafsson, New insights into volcanic activity from strain and other deformation data for the Hekla 2000 eruption, JVGR, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.02.001|
|Reference:||Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program |
View of Hekla volcano. Source: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program
Sourced from FutureVolc (http://futurevolc.hi.is/volcanoes-and-monitoring): “Iceland: volcanoes and present long-term monitoring stations. The volcanic areas consist of volcanic systems, made of central volcanoes, calderas and fissure swarms. Western Eastern, and Northern volcanic zones marked (WVZ, EVZ, NVZ) are located on the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian plates. Iceland’s most active volcanoes are Grímsvötn (G) and Bárðarbunga (B) under the Vatnajökull ice cap, Katla (K) under Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, and Hekla (H). Eyjafjallajökull vocano is labelled E”.