Bardarbunga

Volcano number:373030
Region:Iceland and Arctic Ocean
Country:Iceland
Geodetic measurements?Yes
Deformation observation?Yes
Measurement method(s):InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Levelling, Strainmeter, Tiltmeter, EDM
Duration of observation:Continuous
Inferred cause of deformation:Magmatic
Characteristics of deformation:

The most recent activity at Bardarbunga occurred in 2014 with the injection of a 45-km-long regional dike was emplaced over a period of 2 weeks in August 2014. Gudmundsson et al. (2014)  show that the dike initiated close to the Bardarbunga Volcano but gradually extended to the northeast until it crossed the boundary between the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ) and the North Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The eruption was heavily monitored using InSAR analysis, in conjunction with GPS measurements and earthquake seismicity, has been instrumental in the continued monitoring of Bárðarbunga volcanic system since the onset of unrest. 

Parks et al. (2015) present interferograms spanning the recent unrest and eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system and shows “both pre-eruptive and co-eruptive deformation associated with the initial dyke emplacement and ongoing magma withdrawal from beneath the Bárðarbunga central volcano”. 

Reference:Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program
http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372030
Reference:Parks, M., Dumont, S., Drouin, V., Sigmundsson, F., Spaans, K., Hooper, A., ... & Sturkell, E. (2015, April). PS-InSAR measurements at the most active volcanoes in Iceland: role of the GEO supersite initiative in deformation monitoring at Bárðarbunga, Askja, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 17, p. 12290).
Reference:Gudmundsson, A., Lecoeur, N., Mohajeri, N., & Thordarson, T. (2014). Dike emplacement at Bardarbunga, Iceland, induces unusual stress changes, caldera deformation, and earthquakes. Bulletin of Volcanology, 76(10), 1-7.
Location:-17.33, 64.42

View of Bardarbunga volcano. Source: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program

Sourced from FutureVolc (http://futurevolc.hi.is/volcanoes-and-monitoring): “Iceland: volcanoes and present long-term monitoring stations. The volcanic areas consist of volcanic systems, made of central volcanoes, calderas and fissure swarms. Western Eastern, and Northern volcanic zones marked (WVZ, EVZ, NVZ) are located on the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian plates. Iceland’s most active volcanoes are Grímsvötn (G) and Bárðarbunga (B) under the Vatnajökull ice cap, Katla (K) under Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, and Hekla (H). Eyjafjallajökull vocano is labelled E”.