|Region:||Iceland and Arctic Ocean|
|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - continuous, GPS - campaign, Levelling, Strainmeter, Tiltmeter, EDM|
|Duration of observation:||Continuous|
|Inferred cause of deformation:||Magmatic|
|Characteristics of deformation:|
Wright et al. (2012) summarises deformation at Krafla: “From 1975 to 1984, around 20 dyke intrusions occurred in the Krafla spreading centre generating earthquake swarms, surface faulting and widening. Cumulative widening averaged to 4–5 m, corresponding to 2–2.5 centuries of long-term spreading.
Each dyke event was directly correlated with activity within the Krafla caldera, where subsidence occurred as the dyke propagated laterally away from the caldera at rates of 0.2–0.6 m s−1 . Between dyking events, seismicity was mostly confined to the caldera, which uplifted at a rate of up to 6 mm day−1, fastest immediately following a dyke intrusion and gradually slowing down”.
|Reference:||Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program |
|Reference:||Wright, T. J., F. Sigmundsson, C. Pagli, M. Belachew, I. J. Hamling, Bryndís Brandsdóttir, D. Keir, R. Pedersen, A. Ayele, C. Ebinger, P. Einarsson, E. Lewi and E. Calais (2012), Geophysical constraints on the dynamics of spreading centres from rifting episodes on land, Nature Geoscience, 5, 242-250 (2012) doi:10.1038/ngeo1428, 2012.|
View of Krafla volcano. Source: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program
Sourced from FutureVolc (http://futurevolc.hi.is/volcanoes-and-monitoring): “Iceland: volcanoes and present long-term monitoring stations. The volcanic areas consist of volcanic systems, made of central volcanoes, calderas and fissure swarms. Western Eastern, and Northern volcanic zones marked (WVZ, EVZ, NVZ) are located on the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian plates. Iceland’s most active volcanoes are Grímsvötn (G) and Bárðarbunga (B) under the Vatnajökull ice cap, Katla (K) under Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, and Hekla (H). Eyjafjallajökull vocano is labelled E”.